Kazan University is one of the oldest universities in Russia. On November 5, 1804, Alexander I signed the Affirmative Diploma of Kazan Imperial University and its Charter.
Initially, the university was located in the building of the Kazan Imperial Gymnasium, built-in 1796, later three neighbouring houses were purchased for the institution's needs, which made it possible to consider this quarter as the territory of the campus. In the 1920s, the architect P.G. Pyatnitsky erects the main building, the classic facade of which with three porticoes has been preserved to this day. In the next decade, when N.I. became the rector of the university Lobachevsky, under the leadership of the architect M.P. Corinthian architectural ensemble was created. The architect placed the anatomical theatre strictly along the axis of the main building, making it the southern dominant of the entire ensemble. Symmetrically, the buildings of the chemical laboratory and library got up; in the same period, an astronomical observatory and clinic were built.
In the XX century, the exit of university buildings beyond the original historical quarter became inevitable. The building of the former theological seminary, an architectural monument of the 18th century, housed the geological faculty, on the other side of Astronomical Street, the building of the chemical building grew in the 50s, and from the late 60s, in about ten years, two high-rise educational laboratory buildings were built - north and west of the main building. In 1989, the UNICS cultural and sports complex was put into operation, sports facilities were supplemented by the Bustan complex, which in May 2010 was inaugurated with the participation of the Prime Minister of Russia V.V. Putin. The construction in 2003, in preparation for the 200th anniversary of Kazan University, the east wing of the main building gave it completeness in accordance with the project of architect Mufke,
During the life and work of Kazan University, scientific schools that have received international recognition have been formed in it. Non-Euclidean geometry was born here, the creator of which was the mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky played an outstanding role in the development of the university, leading it for two decades.
In 1842, a graduate of the University, Professor N.N. Zinin, for the first time, synthesized aniline, thereby laying the foundations of the aniline-dye industry and the production of medicines. Two years later, in 1844, another Kazan scientist, K.K. Klaus discovered a new chemical element, which he named “ruthenium” in honour of Russia. Even more glorified Kazan chemical school A.M. Butlerov, creating a theory of the chemical structure of organic substances, which for the chemistry of organic compounds has the same meaning as the table D.I. Mendeleev to study the world of inorganic substances.
In the first half of the 19th century, the university became the largest centre of oriental studies in Europe; here was born the famous linguistic school founded by I.A. Baudouin de Courtenay. Among the poets and scientists, whose activities in many respects contributed to the world fame of the university, - astronomer I.M. Simonov, a participant in the first round-the-world expedition of 1819-1821, during which Antarctica was discovered and the beginning of its scientific study was laid. Within the walls of Kazan University A.F. Samoilov, the founder of the electrophysical school, for the first time in Russia recorded an electrocardiogram. The university is associated with the names of two chemical scientists - the father and son of the Arbuzovs, who created a new direction in science - the chemistry of organophosphorus compounds. In the midst of World War II, in 1944, E.K. Zavoisky made a fundamental scientific discovery - recorded the phenomenon of electron paramagnetic resonance, his research was continued by S.A. Altshuler, B.M. Kozyrev, other scientists who made up the largest school of magnetic radio spectroscopy and quantum electronics.
For more than 200 years of history, the university has given science eighty full members and corresponding members of the country's Academy of Sciences.
The university is a centre not only of science and scientific education but of culture and enlightenment, it is associated with the emergence of book publishing in the region, the appearance of the first provincial newspaper, the development of theatrical life and much more. At different times, the creator of the Soviet state V.I. studied at the university. Ulyanov-Lenin, writers S.T. Aksakov, L.N. Tolstoy, P.I. Melnikov-Pechersky, V.V. Khlebnikov, composer M.A. Balakirev, artist V.I. Jacobi et al.
By decree of the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin on July 30, 1996, Kazan State University is included in the State Code of Especially Valuable Objects of Cultural Heritage of the Peoples of the Russian Federation.
In the execution of the Decree of the President of Russia D.A. Medvedev "On the establishment of federal universities in the North-West, Volga, Ural and Far Eastern Federal Districts" October 21, 2009, by order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 2, 2010, created the federal state autonomous educational institution of higher education "Kazan (Volga Federal) University" by changes in the type of the existing state educational institution of higher professional education “Kazan State University named after IN AND. Ulyanov-Lenin. "
A week later, on April 9, 2010, by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation, Gafurov Ilshat Rafkatovich was appointed rector of the Kazan Federal University for a term of 5 years. By an order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated April 14, 2015, Ilshat Rafkatovich was re-appointed to the post of rector of KFU for the next five-year period.
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