M.B.B.S. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery is an Undergraduate Academic Degree awarded for a course or program in the field of Medicine and Surgery. It is popularly known as M.B.B.S. which is an abbreviated form of Medical degree. M.B.B.S. is a composition of 2 Words, where in M.B. stands for ‘Medicinae Baccalaureus’ (Bachelor of Medicine in Latin) and B.S. stands for ‘Bachelor of Surgery’ (in English). Though the name suggests 2 separate degrees, however it is only 1 degree. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery is the most coveted of all the Medical Degrees in India. M.B.B.S is required to become a Doctor in Allopathic Medicine. Duration of M.B.B.S. extends over a period of 4 ½ academic years which are divided into into 9 semesters. Each semester is of 6 months duration. After the completion of academic study, a candidate has to complete 1 year of compulsory rotating internship. Each semester consists of approximately 120 teaching days. So the duration of M.B.B.S. of 5 ½ years.

The period of 4½ years is divided into 3 Phases:

Phase I – It covers 2 semesters consisting of Pre-clinical subjects (Human Anatomy, Physiology including Bio-Physics, Biochemistry and introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities). Besides 60 hours for introduction to Community Medicine including Humanities, rest of the time is somewhat equally divided between Anatomy and Physiology plus Biochemistry combined (Physiology 2/3 and Biochemistry 1/3).

Phase II – It covers 3 semesters consisting of para – clinical/clinical subjects. During this phase teaching of para-clinical and clinical subjects are done concurrently. The para-clinical subjects consist of Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Forensic Medicine including Toxicology and part of Community Medicine. The clinical subjects shall consist of all these detailed below in Phase III. Out of the time for Para-clinical teaching approximately equal time be allotted to Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine combined (1/3 Forensic Medicine and 2/3 Community Medicine).

Phase III – It covers 7 semesters consisting of continuation of study of clinical subjects covered during Phase-1. The clinical subjects to be taught during Phase II and III are Medicine and its Allied Specialities, Surgery and its Allied Specialities, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Community Medicine. Besides clinical posting as per schedule mentioned herewith, rest of the teaching hours are divided for didactic lectures, demonstrations, seminars, group discussions etc. in various subjects.

  • The Medicine and its allied specialities training include General Medicine, Paediatrics, Tuberculosis and Chest, Skin and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Psychiatry, Radio-diagnosis, Infectious diseases etc. The Surgery and its allied specialities training will include General Surgery, Orthopaedics Surgery including Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Anaesthesia, Dentistry, Radio-therapy etc. The Obstetrics & Gynaecology training will include family medicine, family welfare planning etc.
  • The first 2 semesters (approximately 240 teaching days) shall be occupied in the Phase 1 (pre-clinical) subjects and introduction to a broader understanding of the perspectives of medical education leading to delivery of health care. No student shall be permitted to join the Phase II (Pare-clinical/clinical) group of subjects until he has passed in all the Phase 1 (Pre-clinical) subjects for which he will be permitted not more than four chances (actual examination), provided four chances are completed in three years from the date of enrolment. After passing pre-clinical subjects, 1 ½ year (3 semesters) shall be devoted to para-clinical subjects.
  • Phase II will be devoted to para-clinical and clinical subjects, along with clinical posting.
  • During clinical phase (Phase III) pre-clinical and para clinical teaching will be integrated into the teaching of clinical subjects where relevant. Didactic lectures should not exceed one third of the time schedule; two third schedule should include practical, clinical or/and group discussions.
  • Learning process should include living experiences, problem oriented approach, case studies and community health care activities. Universities shall organize admission timings and admission process in such a way that teaching in first semester starts by 1st of August each year. Supplementary examination may be conducted within 6 months so that the students who pass can join the main batch and the failed students will have to appear in the subsequent year.
  • Medical Schools curriculum is designed to train students so that they can undertake the responsibilities of a Physician who is capable of looking after the  preventive, promotive, curative & rehabilitative aspect of medicine. Only Medical colleges, accredited by the Medical Council of India, award MBBS. Some of the reputed medical schools in India providing M.B.B.S. are All India Institute of Medical Science – New Delhi,  Jawahalal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) – Pondicherry, PGIMER – Chandigarh etc.


In India, to obtain M.B.B.S. admission the basic criteria is that a candidate should have scored more than 50% marks in physics, chemistry and biology aggregate in their 10+2 grade. To get medical school entry, one needs to appear for Common Entrance Test (CET) and National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET). This test is conducted by Central board of Secondary education. A basic requirement for applying for medical entrance tests is that the student should be at least 17 years old on or before 31st December of the year of admission. Upper age limit, where specified, is 25 years. Written test Typically, medical entrance tests have questions from physics, chemistry and biology (botany and zoology). In general, the mix of questions is such that the focus on biology, which is a combination of zoology and botany, is as much as that on physics and chemistry together. Most of the time there is negative marking for a wrong answer. This would be indicated in the information bulletin or prospectus. Some medical entrance tests also have a few questions on general knowledge, personality and intelligence assessment or English language. The states also conduct their own Pre Medical Entrance Examination for domiciled candidates.

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Subjects

  • Human Anatomy
  • Human Physiology Including Bio-Physics
  • Biochemistry
  • Introduction to Humanities & Community Medicine
  • Forensic Medicine including Toxicology
  • Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Orthopaedics
  • Radiotherapy
  • Ophthalmology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Who can and Who should pursue Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

Medical School Degree is not meant for weak hearted. Medical students are given an in depth and proper knowledge of human body and it requires that a person will be given practical experience in dissection of bodies and observing various types of surgeries. Medical school requirements include power of concentration, emotional stability and self confidence. This field is meant for those who want to serve humanity and earn good name and good will as well.

Advantages or Benefits of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

  • Medical graduates are eligible to sit for various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions such as Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, postgraduate Masters degrees such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Obstetrics and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine (e.g. Doctor of Medicine, if earned in Ireland, the UK or Commonwealth nations) and board certification examinations.
  • The prefix of `Dr` before one’s name commands respect. That itself is an achievement in itself.
  • Doctors command high salaries and can earn lots of money especially in private practice.
  • Doctors also are looked upon with great respect as they save lives with their skills so a Doctor gains the status of a Humanitarian as well.

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery  Jobs

Modern world is typified by increasingly extravagant and complicated life styles which pave way for a variety of ailments. Therefore the demand for medical professionals is tremendously increasing with this scenario prevalent all over the world. Added to the fact that there are super speciality hospitals in every nook and corner within the country and abroad offering employment opportunities.

Employment Areas

  • Biomedical Companies.
  • Health Centres.
  • Hospitals.
  • Laboratories.
  • Medical Colleges.
  • Medical Foundation / Trust.
  • Non-Profit Organizations.
  • Nursing Homes.
  • Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies.
  • Polyclinics.
  • Private Practice.
  • Research Institutes.

Job Types

  • Anaesthetist or Anaesthesiologists.
  • Bacteriologist.
  • Cardiologist.
  • Chiropodist.
  • Chief Medical Officer (CMO).
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist.
  • Dermatologist.
  • E.N.T. Specialist.
  • Enterologist.
  • Gastroenterologist.
  • General Practitioner.
  • General Surgeon.
  • Gynaecologist.
  • Hospital Administrator.
  • Medical Admitting Officer.
  • Neurologists.
  • Nutritionist.
  • Obstetrician.
  • Orthopaedist.
  • Pathologist.
  • Paediatrician.
  • Radiologist.
  • Physician.
  • Physiologist.
  • Psychiatrists.
  • Resident Medical Officer.
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